That was changed to one vote per elector

Historian Carol Berkin Discusses Electoral College

Canada Goose Parka DARYN KAGAN, CNN ANCHOR: Before this cliffhanger of an election, the Electoral College was a mystery to most voters. Now many people want a crash course in civics canada goose black friday sale and history.

canada goose black friday sale And canada goose uk black friday for that, Canada Goose Online we’re going to turn canadian goose jacket to CNN’s Garrick Utley.

Canada Goose sale GARRICK canada goose coats UTLEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice over): For voters, the small print was right there on the ballots in many Canada Goose Coats On Sale states. They were not electing the president, but rather electors who would elect the president; someone like Martin Connor, who will canada goose factory sale cast Canada Goose online his electoral vote in New York State.

canada goose store MARTIN CONNOR, DEMOCRATIC ELECTOR: The voters want Canada Goose sale me to vote for Al Gore, and therefore the party, the Democratic Party, picked electors who will be sure to carry out that function.

UTLEY (on camera): Of course, those who voted for George W. Bush here in New York State may well ask, what about our votes? since they will not be canada goose coats on sale represented in New York’s 33 winner take all electoral votes. But then that’s the way the system has operated for more than 200 years. The question is, why?

cheap Canada Goose UTLEY (voice over): When the 55 men who wrote the Constitution debated how to elect a president, it was a different America. There were no political parties, no national campaigns. There was concern that regional candidates would splinter a direct popular vote for president and result in weak chief executives.

PROF. DAVID EPSTEIN, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY: It was going buy canada goose jacket cheap to be difficult, they thought, for the people to really know all the buy canada goose jacket different candidates. They thought that the electors, the leading members of community, might have a better idea of who was out there and what their merits were.

canada goose clearance sale UTLEY: But almost immediately, that imperfect electoral system ran into trouble. In 1800, Thomas Jefferson cheap Canada Goose and Aaron Burr received an equal number of electoral votes because each elector was allowed to cast two votes. That was changed to one vote per elector.

canada goose coats on sale In 1824, Andrew Jackson won uk canada goose the popular vote but not the required majority of electoral votes, because four candidates were in the race. John Quincy Adams, who came in second in the popular and electoral vote count, was elected president by the House of Representatives.

canada goose deals In 1876, Samuel Tilden won more popular votes than Rutherford B. Hayes. But Hayes won the electoral vote after a dispute over those votes was canada goose clearance sale resolved in the House of Representatives.

And it happened again when Grover Cleveland ran for reelection in 1888 and narrowly won the popular vote by fewer than 100,000 votes. But canada goose Benjamin Harrison won the electoral vote and the presidency.

EPSTEIN: Benjamin Harrison won a lot of states by a little bit while Cleveland won fewer states, but by a greater number in each state.

UTLEY (on camera): And so now in canada goose clearance 2000, the real presidential election will take place on the first Monday following the second Wednesday of December as 538 men and women, most of whom are totally unknown to the general public, gather in their respective state capitals to cast their electoral ballots.

CONNOR: There’s a big wooden ballot box with an old fashioned lock on it and each elector is given a ballot. It’s pre printed with the winning candidate’s name on it. You sign the back of it. It’s not Canada Goose Parka a secret vote, really. And then you literally line up as the roll is called and drop the paper ballot into the ballot box for president.

canada goose clearance UTLEY (voice over): And the counting of those cards, the electoral vote, is announced before Congress in January.

AL GORE, VICE PRESIDENT ELECT OF THE UNITED STATES: Bill Clinton canada goose uk outlet of the state of Arkansas has received for president of the United States 379 votes.

Canada Goose Jackets UTLEY: For more than uk canada goose outlet 200 years, Americans have been electing, indirectly, their presidents. If enough people are unhappy with that and want to change the electoral system and the Constitution, well, they have the power to do so.

KAGAN: Did you get that? Do you still have more questions?

buy canada goose jacket cheap Let’s for more on the Electoral College, let’s go live to New York and bring in historian Carol Berkin joining us this morning.

Canada Goose Outlet Professor, good morning. Canada Goose Jackets Good to see you.

canadian goose jacket CAROL BERKIN, HISTORIAN: Good morning. Good to canada goose uk shop see you.

buy canada goose jacket KAGAN: First of all, we continue to refer generically to these electors. Who are these people and how do they get to be one? BERKIN: Well, loyalty to their party. That is, they’re people who participated in the Democratic or the Republican Party’s activities for years. And in a way, this is a kind of honorific or a reward for that kind of party loyalty.

KAGAN: And now to these dates that we keep referring to. Explain to us again the significance. First let’s look forward to Monday, Dec. 18. Why is that day important, and who says?

BERKIN: Well, that who says?

canada goose BERKIN: Who says is up for canada goose jackets grabs, who says what. That’s the day in which the electors are supposed to have been chosen by the state. That’s the final date. The January date is the date when the count is actually done by the federal government the count of the electors’ votes. Canada Goose Outlet But we’ve seen that, canada goose store in fact, anything can happen between now and then, and anything might happen right on the floor of the Congress when they count these votes.

canada goose coats KAGAN: cheap canada goose uk Let’s work backwards from Dec. 18 to today, Dec. 12. A lot of people were saying that this was the drop dead date. But then you were starting to hear people, especially the Democrats, saying, well, maybe it really is not. What’s the initial significance of Dec. 12? And why might it not be the drop dead date.